Cardiac Sciences

Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Surgical Intervention

The heart is a muscular organ found in all vertebrates that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means “related to the heart” and comes from the Greek word, kardia, for “heart.”

From the moment it begins beating until the moment it stops, the human heart works tirelessly. In an average lifetime, the heart beats more than two and a half billion times, without ever pausing to rest. Like a pumping machine, the heart provides the power needed for life.

There are many types of heart diseases. Common among them is the Coronary heart disease. Coronary artery disease is a disease of the artery caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease.

Causes of Heart Failure

Causes of heart failure are difficult to analyze due to challenges in diagnosis, differences in populations & age.

heart

Common causes ranked as per their risk factor:

  • Ischaemic Heart Disease 62%
  • Cigarette Smoking 16%
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)10%
  • Obesity 8%
  • Diabetes 3%
  • Valvular heart disease 2%
    (much higher in older populations)

Rarer causes of heart failure:

  • Viral Myocarditis (an infection of the heart muscle)
  • Infiltrations of the muscle such as amyloidosis
  • HIV cardiomyopathy (caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
  • Connective Tissue Diseases such as Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Abuse of drugs such as alcohol
  • Pharmaceutical drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents
  • Arrhythmias

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, a condition of sleep disordered breathing, overlaps with obesity, hypertension and diabetes and is regarded as an independent cause of heart failure.

Signs and Symptoms

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include:

  • Sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Palpitations
  • Sweating
  • Anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom)

Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one quarter of all myocardial infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms.

Conditions/diseases that can be treated at CNS – Cardiac Sciences

  • Angina / Unstable Angina
  • Acute Heart Attack (MI)
  • Acute shortness of breath / Heart failure Valvular Disease
  • Congenital Heart Diseases Patients requiring pacemaker
  • Patients with abnormal heart rate (Arrythmia)
  • Syncope or faint attacks

Facilities Available

Diagnostic (Non-Invasive)

  • ECG (12-lead, computerised)
  • TMT
  • Holter monitor
  • Stress echo
  • Tilt-table test
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
  • Echo-cardiography (Colour Doppler, trans-esophageal and 3D )
  • Preventive cardiology (lifestyle modification, control of risk factors)

Diagnostic (Invasive)

  • Coronary Angiography
  • Femoral
  • Radial (Day care procedure)
  • Carotid/cerebral
  • Peripheral/renal
  • Electrophysiology (arrhythmia study)
  • Intravascular ultrasound
  • FFR study
  • Cardiac catheterisation & haemodynamic study
  • Catheterisation & evaluation of congenital heart disease

Therapeutic Intervention

Diagnostic (Non-Invasive)

  • Elective Coronary Angioplasty and stent implant
  • Primary or emergency Coronary Angioplasty (during early hours of MI)
  • Renal Angioplasty
  • Carotid Angioplasty
  • Limb artery Angioplasty
  • Aorta intervention
  • PTSMA
  • Pericardial fluid aspiration
  • Balloon Valvuloplasty (Mitral, Aortic, Pulmonary, Tricuspid valve ballooning)
  • Device (ASD, VSD, PDA) closure of holes in the heart
  • Acute intervention after birth (TGA, PDA opening)
  • Closure of abnormal arterial channels in children

Pacing Modalities Group

  • Pacemaker implantation (single/dual chamber, bi-ventricular)
  • Multi-site pacing
  • Ablation therapy for SBT, VT, AF, WPW
  • Stent valve implantation

Surgical Intervention

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CABG

  • Off-Pump
  • Multi-Vessel Total Arterial Bypass(LIMA-RIMA Y) Valve surgery

Valve Surgery

  • Aortic Valve Replacement / Repair
  • Mitral Valve Replacement/Repair
  • Double Valve Replacement
  • Tricuspid Valve repair
  • Stent-less Aortic Valve
  • Replacement
  • Aortic Root Surgery (Bentalls Operation, ROSS Procedure)

Congenital Heart Surgery

  • ASD Closure
  • VSD Closure
  • PDA Ligation
  • BT Shun
  • BD Glenn Shunt
  • Fontan’s Procedure
  • TAPVC Repair
  • Total Correction of TOF
  • Rastelli’s Procedure
  • Senning’s Operation
  • Arterial Switch for DTGA
  • Double Switch for CCTGA
  • Norwood Procedure
  • Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
  • Hybrid Surgery

 

Department of Paediatric Cardiology

Worldwide statistics show that nearly one in every hundred children born suffer from congenital heart disease along with the new additions every year, the burden is huge. Considering the present birth rate in India, every year we have almost two lakh new born babies who suffer from such a defect. Approximately half of them need treatment in first year of life. If we consider the existing children already suffering from congenital heart diseases, along with the new additions every year, the burden is huge. Unfortunately only two percent of these children get proper treatment and it tells us about the sorry state of our performance in this field.

Special Clinics

  • Heart Failure Clinic
  • Pain Clinic
  • Syncope Clinic
  • Special care for elderly patients
  • Special Packages (below economy packages)

 

CNS Makes a Difference in Patient Care

  • Early Diagnosis & Wellness
  • Environment Friendly
  • Access and choice
  • Convenience
  • Privacy
  • Quality
  • Cost Effective
  • Healthy & Vibrant Ambience
  • High Tech

 

Patient Friendly

  • Large patient rooms to provide separate zones for patient, care provider and staff.
  • Sized and equipped to handle all critical and intensive care.
  • Minimizes patient transfers which reduces errors and injuries.